Two-faced: Looking back and forwards

Thanks everyone who’s helped and been supportive in 2015. It’s been a busy year and I barely stopped to think about a lot of very important things, but spent too long thinking about other things which in retrospect probably aren’t so important. I’m sure that’s normal.

First: what’s coming up in 2016?

  • On 20 January, I’m talking at Behavior Design Amsterdam — thanks Wilbert Baan and Iskander Smit for the invitation
  • In February, I’m off to Mexico City as the RCA lead, working with Laura Ferrarello, for a collaborative Mexico–UK project with Laboratorio para la Ciudad, Superflux, Future Cities Catapult and UNAM. Supported by the British Council’s Newton Fund, we’ll be looking at aspects of how to make policy visible, tangible and interactable-with (agency?), in the city environment, transposing ideas between Mexico City and London and vice versa. Thank you to Dan Hill, Claire Mookerjee, Gabriella Gómez-Mont, and everyone else involved in setting this up.
  • From 27–30 June, DRS2016 in Brighton, the Design Research Society conference, is shaping up into an interesting and diverse programme of perspectives on design, research and society. I’m conference experience chair, along with Veronica Ranner, and we’ll be trying to help curate a good experience for everyone taking part. Some thoughts here on how you can help.
  • The biggest event in 2016, scheduled for the autumn, will be O’Reilly’s publication of my Design with Intent book — see below for some more details.
  • Living Labs, a book arising from the SusLabNWE project, for which I am an editor along with David Keyson and Olivia Guerra Santin from TU Delft, will be published by Springer
  • ‘Taking the Code for a Walk’, written by Delfina Fantini van Ditmar and myself for Elisa Giaccardi’s ‘Connected Everyday’ forum in ACM Interactions will be published. This is a brief but exciting article detailing some of the research Delfina has done for her PhD around human interaction with the algorithmic systems of the ‘smart’ home, taking a second-order cybernetic perspective.
  • ‘Plans and Speculated Actions’, a chapter that Veronica Ranner and I have written for Jonathan Chapman’s Routledge Handbook of Sustainable Product Design, should be published (though I see as I write this that the intended publication date is actually 2017). We’re exploring what happens when design for behaviour change and speculative design collide, with a sustainability focus.
  • At the RCA, Research Culture Action will continue in 2016, a series of informal lunchtime talks bringing together research students and staff from across the College. Our first ‘prototype’ event, in October, featured Daisy Ginsberg, Grit Hartung and Sarah Teasley, and I’m hoping we can have them every couple of months.

In career, personal development, and work-life balance terms, 2016 needs to be very different to 2015. I won’t go into it here, but I have come to the conclusion that I need to heed Mary Dankoski‘s advice outlined here by Kate Clancy:

Dr. Dankoski asked us if we were the type of academic who lived by Plan A: did what we were asked to do and hoped we would have a rewarding fulfilling career while also meeting the promotion and tenure expectations, or Plan B: were proactive, developed a plan and negotiated responsibilities to be sure we will have vitality, find real meaning in our work, and meet promotion expectations.

You can probably guess which type most of us were, and which type Dankoski encouraged us to become. The Plan A academic says yes to most things because she is directionless and is trying to meet expectations, whereas the Plan B academic uses her personal values and interests to define and express her scholarly worth.

I have been trying to follow Plan A for the past few years, because I thought it would lead somewhere, but my resolution for 2016 is Plan B, or something better. And the main part of that is making things. I used to do it, and have done it a bit with things like Powerchord in recent years, but nowhere near to the extent I would like to. Writing papers, and book chapters, and reports that no-one will read, has squeezed out something that I really enjoyed. I need to get back to it, and find a way to make an academic career work that isn’t primarily about being seen to produce outputs, but actually to do things (and have the freedom to think about them too).

2015 certainly involved doing a lot, even if I didn’t make much. It’s strange how in an everyday life so flooded by information and essential updates from everything from household objects to people whom I vaguely remember who added me on LinkedIn, I still forget a lot of what I was doing only a few months ago. Updating my CV recently, I suddenly remembered an entire industry collaboration project I did in summer 2013, with meetings, and diagrams, and presentations and everything, that had completely slipped my mind. So, because I know that I’ll forget them if I don’t record them, below, here’s some of what happened in 2015:

Architectures of Control in Design

10 years of this blog

The anniversary slipped by unrecorded here, but it was back in November 2005 that I first started this blog, then called Architectures of Control in Design. It changed my life: it led to changing career, doing a PhD, meeting people from all over the world. Still on the same WordPress installation, with layers of tinkering and lots of things that no longer work, the blog probably deserves a bit of attention for its 11th year.

O'Reilly

Design with Intent book

In August I signed a contract with O’Reilly to publish a Design with Intent book, which aims to give practitioners a more nuanced approach to design and behaviour, working with people, people’s understanding, and the complexities of everyday human experience. It will build on the toolkit, and my PhD, but also what I’ve learned over the last few years on practical research projects, with people in real contexts, around people’s understanding of, and interaction with, technology and designed systems.

It’s taking longer to write than I had hoped, not due to the content as much as the difficulty of arranging uninterrupted periods of time to concentrate on writing it. That’s certainly not a problem unique to me, but it gives me new (extra) respect for people who manage to write these kinds of books alongside busy jobs, looking after children, and everything else. Publication date should be Autumn 2016: see the website for updates.

Drawing Energy

Drawing Energy book published

Drawing Energy was published in July by the RCA. Written by Flora Bowden, together with myself, Rama Gheerawo and Clare Brass, and designed by Hannah Montague, the book explores public perceptions of energy, through a drawing project Flora and I ran, in which more than 180 people illustrated their thoughts and reactions to the question ‘What does energy look like?’, as part of the Interreg IVB-funded SusLabNWE project.

You can view the drawings online, download a PDF or order a free copy of the book.

Design for Action This Happened

Talks

I’ve done a few talks this year, around design, behaviour, understanding and related subjects, most notably Design for Action 2015 in Washington, DC, the Hans Sauer Foundation’s Social Design Elevation Days in Munich, Product Tank in London, This Happened at Goldsmiths (on “The Power to Act: Exploring agency, design and participation in cities”), Green Sky Thinking week (as part of Max Fordham’s programme), the launch of Keep Britain Tidy’s Centre for Social Innovation. Thanks to Steve Wendel, Zarak Khan, Nynke Tromp, Ralph Boch, Barbara Lersch, Alison Austin, Gyorgyi Galik, Kate Pincott, Henry Pelly, Tim Burns and everyone else involved in these events, for the invitations.


Here’s a video of my talk at Mind The Product’s Product Tank in March.

Guardian visitor pass

Guardian Tech Weekly Podcast

In October I was a guest on the Guardian Tech Weekly podcast, hosted by Nathalie Nahaï, talking about dark patterns, along with Cennydd Bowles, and Geoff White from Channel 4 News. Listen to it here (I’m on at about 13 minutes in, and say “kind of” about 20 times during my few minutes of airtime).

Relational Materials workshop, Delfina Fantini van Ditmar Repair cultural probes, Nazli Terzioglu
Left: Relational Materials workshop, Delfina Fantini van Ditmar; Right: Cultural probes around repair, Nazlı Gökçe Terzioğlu

PhD supervision

This year I have been a visiting (i.e. entirely uncontracted adjunct) research tutor for Innovation Design Engineering at the RCA, working mainly with a wonderful group of research students, including five whom I’m supervising:

  • Delfina Fantini van Ditmar (2012–2016), ‘The Internet of Dwelling’ (second-order cybernetics and human interaction with IoT and ‘smart’ homes—image above). Supervised with Professor Ashley Hall, RCA Innovation Design Engineering and Dr Paul Pangaro, College for Creative Studies, Detroit
  • Dr Dave Pao (MBBS, MRCP, MD) (2013–present), ‘Design as the 3rd voice in the clinician-patient conversation’ (new interfaces for facilitating conversations in sexual health contexts). Supervised with Dr John Stevens, RCA Global Innovation Design
  • Nazlı Gökçe Terzioğlu (2013–present), ‘Exploring the Means of Creating New Relationships between Users and Products Through Repair’—image above. Supervised with Clare Brass, SustainRCA
  • Hugo Glover (2013–present), ‘Stereoscopic Spatiality: A Practice-based Investigation into the Use of Stereoscopic 3D‐Depth Technologies in Physical and Digital Space’. Supervised with Neil Barron, RCA Innovation Design Engineering
  • Chang Hee Lee (2014–present), ‘Synaesthesia Materialisation: Synaesthetic Inputs within the Product Design Industry’. Supervised with Dr John Stevens, RCA Global Innovation Design

Thanks to all the IDE research students for all your enthusiasm and help this year, and well done on everything you’ve achieved. In November, Nazlı Gökçe Terzioğlu and Yoon Choi both presented papers at Sustainable Innovation 2015 on which I was a co-author, covering two intriguing directions in understanding (and changing) people’s relationships with products from a sustainability perspective:

—Terzioğlu, N., Brass, C. & Lockton, D. (2015) ‘Understanding user motivations and drawbacks related to product repair’. Sustainable Innovation 2015, 9-10 November 2015, Epsom, UK. (PDF)

—Choi, Y., Lockton, D., Brass, C., & Stevens, J. (2015) ‘Opportunities for sustainable packaging design: Learning from pregnancy as a metaphor’. Sustainable Innovation 2015, 9-10 November 2015, Epsom, UK. (PDF on ResearchGate)

V&A Design Culture Salon

V&A Design Culture Salon

As my look of terror / staring into nothingness in the above photo (by Jonny Jiang) might suggest, I chaired a Design Culture Salon at the V&A in November, with the title “Is Designing for Behaviour Change ‘Creepy’?” With a fantastic panel of Alison Powell, Phoebe Moore, Jessica Pykett, Peter John and Simon Blyth, we debated issues from the Quantified Self to the Nudge Unit to algorithmic governance: all with a “design and behaviour” theme, too broad really for a single event, but very enjoyable. Thanks to Guy Julier and Leah Armstrong for organising the event, to the panellists, and to so many people who came to see and take part.

Here’s a transcript of my introduction (I’m partly putting it here for future reference), while there are some reflections here from Lucy Kimbell, Jocelyn Bailey and Stephen Feber, collated by Guy Julier, and Phoebe Moore has written up her introductory talk, covering specifically design for behaviour change in the workplace.

Konstfack, Stockholm The Performance of Nonhuman Behaviour, Nordes

The Performance of Nonhuman Behaviour

In June, I ran a workshop at Nordes 2015, at Konstfack, in Stockholm, with Delfina Fantini van Ditmar and Claudia Dutson, looking at conversations between people and machines. We packed a lot into the day, with some great participants, but my part of the workshop was mostly focused on “thinking about how machines think we think”—applying some basic forms from R.D. Laing’s Knots to situations that might arise in the smart home (or other algorithmic developments). We got some nice examples of knot-like scenarios, particularly around people trying to cajole the technology to make different assumptions. I can see why, as Paul Pangaro commented, Gordon Pask liked Knots so much. I am, slowly, working on a paper drawing on some of the ideas generated in the workshop: thank you to all the participants and to Salu Ylirisku for the organisation.

AcrossRCA AcrossRCA AcrossRCA

One Another: Empathy and Experience

In October, Dr Katie Gaudion and I ran One Another: Empathy and Experience, a week-long ‘AcrossRCA’ course exploring questions of how we can experience the world as someone (or something) else does. With participants from eight different RCA MA and PhD programmes, over the week, we had a talk from Jon Adams, an autistic artist with synaesthesia, we visited London Zoo to explore the world from animals’ points of view (and human interactions), and through practical experiments, tried to see if we could “generate” empathy for inanimate objects, such as paper tissues, leaves and headphones. We backed up the practical work with some theoretical psychology background around theory of mind, empathy and the fundamental attribution error. The week ended with three really brilliant group projects, which invited participants to try to experience the world through the perspective of another:
The Human Zoo, by Sarha Hersi, Joey (Jupone) Wang, Saaya Kamita, Mariana Pedrosa
Obsessions, by Thomas Leech, Faith Wray, Andrea Fischer, Heeju Kim and Chang Hee Lee
Empathising with Claustrophobia (centre, above), by Anna Dakin, Harry Thompson, Nong Chotipatoomwan and Tess Dumon

Rice Summer School, Copenhagen Rice Summer School, Copenhagen

Rice University Urban Sustainability and Livability Summer Institute

The end of May and early June saw Flora Bowden, Claudia Dutson, Delfina Fantini van Ditmar and myself run Learning New Ways of Looking at the City, an international summer programme for Rice University’s Urban Sustainability and Livability Summer Institute, at the Danish Institute for Study Abroad, in Copenhagen. With visits over three weeks, working with an impressively enthusiastic and motivated group of Rice students, we used Copenhagen as a setting to explore questions around transport and mobility, tourism, green space, and cultural differences, among other issues, through student research projects. Thanks to Don Ostdiek, Michael Emerson and Julia Grasse for the organisation, and thanks to Anne-Kathrine Kjær Christensen and Larry Toups for visiting contributions.

MACE2015 Kingston University MACE2015 Kingston University

Kingston University MACE Startup Weekend

At the end of September, I returned to Kingston Business School’s MA Creative Industries and the Creative Economy, to run the Startup Weekend, a two-day workshop right at the start of the course, in which new students on this unique programme, combining design and business (with the practical requirement of creating a business by the end of the course), get a rapid introduction to design research and prototyping and carry out a group project responding to a real-life problem they have identified. In 2014, we looked at the experience of new international students; in 2015 we focused on money, with field research in Kingston town centre, including visiting (and comparing the customer experience at) Metro Bank and some more traditional establishments, and a guest talk from Stephen Wendel via Skype. Groups came up with some clever concepts, including a service that automatically puts change onto a card, new kinds of international money transfer service, and redesigning how Argos works. Thanks to Janja Song, and Mark Passera who originally invited me.

Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University

Visit to Carnegie Mellon

In November, I visited Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, to do a talk / mini-workshop called Design, Behaviour & Understanding, in the School of Design, for Master’s students in Molly Steenson’s Interaction and Service Design class, and a talk called People Don’t Really Use Energy for the Intelligent Workplace team in the School of Architecture. I also got to meet some very interesting people (students and staff), and take part in one of the Design PhD group discussions, which was very enjoyable. Thank you to Cameron Tonkinwise, Kakee Scott, Darlene Scalese, Jane Ditmore, Molly Steenson, Simon King, Terry Irwin, Peter Scupelli, Bruce Hanington, Michael Arnold Mages, Dimeji Onafuwa, and everyone else who arranged my visit and made me feel so welcome.


Good luck everyone for 2016: it’s going to be what we make it!

Let’s See What We Can Do: Designing Agency

‘What does energy look like?’ drawn by Zhengni Li, participant in Drawing Energy (Flora Bowden & Dan Lockton)
‘What does energy look like?’ drawn by Zhengni Li, participant in Drawing Energy (Flora Bowden & Dan Lockton)

How can we invert ‘design for behaviour change’ and apply it from below, enabling people to understand, act within, and change the behaviour of the systems of society and the environment?
 

[This article is cross-posted to Medium where there may also be readers’ comments]

As our everyday lives are increasingly pushed and pulled by technology and the systems around us, from infrastructure to quantification to government to horrifying combinations of these, understanding these complex systems, and how to change them, is something we should be paying attention to. In ‘As we may understand’, last year, I looked — at excessive length — at the understanding bit, but not the change. Hopefully here I can address that, to some extent, though my thinking’s moved on a bit.

Some empty chairs in Munich

Paralysis and regret

We are surrounded by, and enmeshed in, complexity which at once causes us paralysis over not being able to take action, and regret over the actions we do take (and continue to take). We simultaneously worry and do nothing about issues such as the military-industrial surveillance state, ageing populations, inequality, war and privatisation of the commons. We fudge our responses to planetary-scale crises such as climate change, pollution or poverty because our understanding of what we are able to do locally does not match our understanding of what is possible at a larger scale. We face a crisis of agency, in the phrase used by Gyorgyi Galik, Natalie Jeremijenko, Zygmunt Bauman and others.

How can ‘we’ (at the level of individual people — and I’m speaking from the position of a middle-class Western consumer, with all that entails) act? We don’t know what to do, and even if we did, we are not individual “micro-resource managers” (to use Yolande Strengers’ phrase), but people acting within the constraints (and enablers) of family, society, social groups, cultural contexts, norms and expectations. We lack the ability to hold different visions of possible futures in mind simultaneously, or even to think through the consequences and possibilities at multiple levels. We are entangled in social traps, double binds and knots around everything from participation in democracy (why bother? it won’t change anything) to dealing with terrorism (be alert, but not scared, because that’s what they want, so still be very very very alert).

Tomorrow's News Today, Edinburgh

What can designers do?

What is designers’ role in this? Both design and sustainability, in its broadest sense, are about “the future” — bringing into being a world where humanity and other forms of life will “flourish on the planet forever” (John Ehrenfeld) or where we can “go about our daily affairs… [knowing] that our activities as civilised beings are expanding our future options and improving our current situation” (Bruce Sterling). Design might be one of the mechanisms by which much of our current predicament has come about (Victor Papanek), but perhaps “the future with a future for “us” can only be reached by design” (Tony Fry).

Designing for behaviour change at the mundane level of helping people recycle things, or use their electrical appliances more efficiently — the sort of thing a lot of my previous work has focused on — might be part of the solution, but it’s clear that design really needs to address things at a much higher, more systemic level, including designing things out of existence. Perhaps, in terms of producing a new generation of designers ready to engage with this degree of challenge, this is what transition design can bring us. I hope so.

A tangled ethernet cable cupboard at Goldsmiths

Understanding complexity

To engage with this complexity — not destroy its variety, because we can’t and we shouldn’t — requires designers to understand society better. Yes, we need designers to understand people’s lives, and appreciate the realities of situated decision making and subjective experience, but also to understand complexity, connectedness (in a technology sense but a people sense too) and the effects of design, and its politics, to a degree beyond what might previously have been common. We need designers to engage with the invisible ‘dark matter’ (Dan Hill) even though it may often be experienced as an impediment to action.

We need designers to understand (and be allowed to deal with) the wickedness of the problems we are facing: they will not be understood until ‘solutions’ have been attempted (which will in turn create new problems, as John Gall pointed out); there will be no stopping rules; there will be no right or wrong answers; and all attempts to deal with a problem will only highlight its uniqueness and contextual peculiarity. We will not be able to step in the same river twice, nor even once (as Ranulph Glanville suggests), and we must make peace with that. It doesn’t mean we can’t learn from what we’ve done before, but we cannot presume that patterns always transpose effectively. Deterministic top-down approaches promoted by behavioural economics and simplistic notions of the ‘Quantified Self’ and ‘Big Data’ are not going to work.

A You Are Here sign at Goldsmiths

Understanding how to act

Of course, understanding complexity is not the goal in itself. The real goal is understanding what agency is possible, and how to enact change. So, we need design that enables people to understand the wider contexts of their actions, their agency within society, and how they can act to create different outcomes, different futures.

Understanding how to act to change the systems we’re in is arguably the biggest meta-challenge of our age. We need not just information, but tools for connecting our understanding of how things work and how we can act, around everything from the environment, cities, our own bodies, networked infrastructure to social, civic and political contexts, emerging technologies and plural considerations of the future itself.

This is design for behaviour change, but is not about designers trying to change ‘public behaviour’ as if it were somehow a separate phenomenon. Designers are members of society, and there is only one Earth: we are part of the same systems. It is about design which enables people to change the behaviour of the systems of which they — we — are part.

Some tar road repairs at Carnegie Mellon

Ways of doing this

What do we do, then? I imagine a ‘Designing Agency’ research / action programme, which would rethink how we engage with the systems of everyday (and future) life, through developing new approaches to understanding and action. Designing Agency would use ‘design’ — in the broadest sense — as a way to:

1. understand the world
2. understand people’s understandings of the world
3. help people understand the world
4. help people understand their agency in the world
5. help people use that agency in the world

We could see these as a progression from understanding to action. But how would we do it in practice? Different techniques would be effective at different levels. Some would be investigatory, some practical, some speculative or critical. Some would give us tools for understanding and learning, some tools for doing, some provocations for reflection. The examples I have here are quite pedestrian.

A ‘comfort timeline’ heating practice diary developed by Natalia Romero Herrera, TU Delft, being used here by a householder in Dartford, UK.
A ‘comfort timeline’ heating practice diary developed by Natalia Romero Herrera, TU Delft, being used here by a householder in Dartford, UK.

For example, at Level 1, using design to understand the world might involve designing and deploying probes (e.g. the heating diary shown here), and running designed experiments, which investigate phenomena in the world (including society) through gathering data in a way which provides meaningful scaffolding for the next level. This is essentially using design as a way to do science, or social science.

Level 2, in attempting to ‘understand understanding’ (in Heinz von Foerster’s phrase), would take things a stage further: using activities which practically try to explore the different ways in which people imagine, conceptualise and think about how things work. Very basically, we could use techniques such as drawing (as in the image at the top of the article, from the Drawing Energy project), but there’s a whole world of possibilities here. It is partly about making the invisible visible, tangible or legible, from the point of view of people themselves (i.e. what is legible, or not, to them), but also about surfacing people’s different understandings of situations, and how that leads different people to act.

Claustrophobia simulation apparatus, developed by Anna Dakin, Harry Thompson, Nong Chotipatoomwan and Tess Dumon as part of ‘One Another: Empathy and Experience’, AcrossRCA course by Katie Gaudion & Dan Lockton
Claustrophobia simulation apparatus, developed by Anna Dakin, Harry Thompson, Nong Chotipatoomwan and Tess Dumon as part of ‘One Another: Empathy and Experience’, AcrossRCA course by Katie Gaudion & Dan Lockton

At Level 3, we’d be designing ways which help change people’s understandings of the world and the systems they’re in. This could take the form of new kinds of interface, designed experiences, educational activities — a range of things.Some of the examples collected by Dieter Zinnbauer’s Ambient Accountability project perhaps fit here. It could be about changing mental models, expanding horizons, reframing of situations, or even trying to facilitate empathy (as in the image). I want to make it clear here that this isn’t about ‘correcting incorrect mental models’ but about enabling and supporting people to construct and refine their own models of the world, experientially, which serve them better. And learning how to reflect on that.

I don’t really know, at this stage, what Level 4 would look like. This is the “let’s see what we can do” of the title. I have some ideas, but they need work: I imagine new forms of interface, new ‘senses’, new metaphors (in the sense suggested by Margaret Mead and also by A. Baki Kocabelli — see below) and new analogues: not just behaviour quantification and data dashboards, but highlighters and contextual explainers of agency. I am very excited about this, and aim to come back to it with another article very soon, once I’ve actually built something. Let’s just say, qualitative interfaces…

At Level 5, among other things, we would pretty much be challenging and inverting common ‘behavioural design’ paradigms. We have a whole load of them, of course, but what can they do if you turn them upside down? What does it look like when the public uses a technique like Commitment & Consistency or Are You Sure? or Watermarking to change the behaviour of a system like policing or energy policy? Can it be more constructive than ‘fighting back’, and actually be about co-designing systems of society that behave more effectively, and work better for more people? Again, these could be applied critically, or provocatively — a what if? — or they could be direct ways of enabling action, empowering people to change the behaviour of the systems in which we live.

At this level, we should be mindful of our roles as designers within the systems we are aiming to help people change. The power dynamics, and our assumptions about the people we are designing with or for, need to be surfaced and questioned. We need to be aware of — and honest about — our inherent subjectivity: as Hugh Dubberly and Paul Pangaro point out:

“Framing wicked problems requires explicit values and viewpoints, accompanied by the responsibility to justify them with explicit arguments, thus incorporating subjectivity and the epistemology of second-order cybernetics.”

In this vein, A. Baki Kocaballi has written very usefully about agency sensitive design, particularly the notion of relationality (recognising that assumptions of neither full technological determinism, nor full social determinism, are useful when understanding agency in context):

“In design processes, the quality of relationality asks for three sensitivities: (i) understanding of mutual influence, shaping and co-constitution of actors and artefacts; (ii) embracing and supporting emergent and improvised action and (iii) consideration of the system as an assemblage/network of actors, artefacts or collective hybrids. In order to develop these sensitivities, we first need to stop formulating design solutions based upon the assumption of a well-defined individual with fixed characteristics and capacities of action. Design solutions should recognize and support the existence of the multiple individuals embodied in one individual and the possibility of multiple enactments of one individual within a network of other human and non-human actors interacting with each other and exhibiting different capacities for action.”

Kocaballi’s six qualities for agency sensitive design — relationality, visibility, multiplicity, configurability, accountability and duality — could be a valuable set of considerations to explore in relation to the design of these ‘Level 5’ attempts to help people use their agency in the world.

Somewhere on the D2 near Grèoliéres, France

What next?

I need to stop writing about things like this, and get back to doing it. I’ve had my own career-related crisis of agency in 2015, but 2016 is going to be better. First up is an amazing opportunity working with Laboratorio para la Ciudad, Superflux, Future Cities Catapult and UNAM on a joint project between Mexico City and London, funded by the British Council’s Newton Fund, in which (I’m hoping) at least a bit of levels 4 and 5 can come into play, in the context of helping people understand their agency, and act in relation to policy in the built environment.

We’ll have to see what we can do.

Thank you to Veronica Ranner, Gyorgyi Galik, Delfina Fantini van Ditmar and Laura Ferrarello for conversations which have led to ideas in this article.

[See also readers’ comments / responses on Medium]

Design with Intent: The Book

I’m very excited to announce that O’Reilly Media will be publishing my Design with Intent book in Autumn 2016, with an Early Release version available before that. Please do sign up to the new newsletter for updates!

Design is increasingly about people’s behaviour, but this is often considered simplistically. The Design with Intent book aims to give practitioners a more nuanced approach to design and behaviour, working with people, people’s understanding, and the complexities of everyday human experience.

It will build on the toolkit, and my PhD, but also what I’ve learned over the last few years on practical research projects, with people in real contexts, around people’s understanding of, and interaction with, technology and designed systems, including SusLab, Creative Citizens, CarbonCulture at DECC and Creating Sustainable Innovation. The book will also build on examples, good and bad, from all over the world, addressing a wide range of problems and contexts, both social and commercial. It’ll cover design across products, services and environments, physical and digital (and, increasingly, in combination), and I’ll be asking for readers’ suggestions and examples for particular ideas and themes.

I’m hoping that the book will offer a more nuanced approach to designing around people’s behaviour, based on designing and researching with people rather than ‘for’ them, learning from people’s understanding of the world, and embracing the complexities of everyday human experience. As I said last year, I’m increasingly uncomfortable with how I see “design for behaviour change”, and the “behaviour change agenda”, being applied in practice, with simplistic, deterministic and individualist approaches which often seem to be about treating humans as defective components, that need to be constrained or tricked, denying variety, complexity, culture and social context. I started blogging ten years ago specifically to explore and critique the use of design to control and exert power, and that hasn’t gone away.

Writing the book is going to be a big job alongside my work at the RCA, and my plan is to blog the process to keep myself on track—partly also to get suggestions and input along the way. So please do keep an eye on the site, and sign up to the newsletter for updates. Thanks to everyone who gave me the confidence to take the plunge with this!

What does energy look like? Drawing Energy book now available

Drawing Energy book

Some news from the SusLab project:

Last year, Flora Bowden blogged about our investigation of people’s perceptions of ‘energy’—how do people visualise, or think about, what is for the most part an abstract, invisible concept?

A book detailing our research, Drawing Energy, is now available to download or order:

Bowden, F., Lockton, D., Gheerawo, R. and Brass, C. (2015). Drawing Energy: Exploring perceptions of the invisible. London: Royal College of Art. ISBN 978-1-910642-10-8. Editor: Rama Gheerawo (PDF)

Drawing Energy describes a drawing-based research project undertaken by the Royal College of Art as part of SusLabNWE (2012-15). The project explored people’s perceptions of energy, by asking them to write, draw or illustrate their thoughts and reactions to the question ‘What does energy look like?’ Over 180 members of the public took part in the process.

The larger SuslabNWE study saw 11 partners from Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK come together to understand and investigate energy use in the home. At the Royal College of Art in the UK, we looked at bringing together two ideals and practices around inclusive design and sustainability. Both often have different starting points and deal with different scales. Inclusive design usually focuses on people’s needs and capabilities at the domestic scale, while sustainability embraces complexity and systems thinking, addressing systemic change.

Drawing Energy negotiates a space between the two, bringing together people’s aspirations and perspectives with the context of socio-political mandates and changing infrastructure or technologies. The study also moves beyond the idea of purely functional research (such as numerically measuring energy use) to depict the less tangible area of how people relate to energy in a visual, literal or metaphorical way – it takes us from data ‘performance’ through to human ‘perception’. The work represented in this collection builds on a history of using drawing as a tool for research and as a way to enable people to express their ideas and imagination fully.

We hope you appreciate this publication, whether you see it as a strategy within design research, or simply enjoy it for the rich and varied artwork that represent the public’s views of energy.

Drawing Energy: Exploring Perceptions of the Invisible was designed by Hannah Montague and edited by Rama Gheerawo.

Drawing Energy - gallery

Update

Royal College of Art, Kensington Gore

It’s been a bit of a chaotic time recently, both in family terms and professionally, so my apologies for the lack of updates. In February I started as Visiting Research Tutor in Innovation Design Engineering (IDE) at the RCA, helping develop a programme of research and helping to supervise a group of excellent PhD researchers with a range of very interesting projects. IDE has one of the largest design research cohorts within the RCA, and I am looking forward to helping develop this further, in some new directions, through both academic and industry collaborations.

Part of this, from my point of view, will be reinvigorating and developing the Design & Behaviour Research Network which I started back in 2008, into something more substantial and which can build on other work such such as last year’s Creating Sustainable Innovation project. If you’re interested in collaborating, please get in touch.

The Performance of Nonhuman BehaviourAt Nordes 2015 at Konstfack in Stockholm in June, I will be running a workshop, The Performance of Nonhuman Behaviour, with Delfina Fantini van Ditmar (IDE PhD candidate) and Claudia Dutson (Architecture PhD candidate). My part of the workshop builds on many of the ideas explored in this blog over the years, around people’s understanding of the systems they interact with, and I’m hoping it will be a fun and useful event. More details in due course.

Some background

I’ll be blunt here: academic career prospects for what are termed “early career researchers” in the UK are not great, particularly in subjects which fall between the cracks of major research councils’ funding scope, and particularly at places like the RCA which don’t have any kind of staff development programme for researchers, and which depend heavily on “visiting” and part-time staff, often with no contract at all. My choices have been, essentially: 1) bring in enough funding to pay my own salary plus all of the overheads which universities require (which I have tried to do, and am trying to do, but which is very difficult starting from a near-zero base); 2) work on others’ projects on a series of short-term contracts, with little strategic input (which I don’t mind doing if I have to, but which is a step backwards); 3) leave and go somewhere with better support for early career staff. The RCA has some fantastic people, both students and staff, so I am trying option 1), as best I can, but I am aware that as an institution, it doesn’t try very hard to hold onto people.

GATEway project, Meridian ShuttleIn option 2) terms, working for the Helen Hamlyn Centre together with Vehicle Design at the RCA, I have temporarily (since January) also been project manager for setting up the public engagement work package of GATEway, an £8 million Innovate UK project looking at understanding and demonstrating driverless cars in the UK, led by TRL in conjunction with partners including the Royal Borough of Greenwich, Commonplace, and Shell. The introduction of new technology of this kind, the designed systems, services and infrastructure around it, and the potential effects on everything from urban planning to jobs, is fascinating, and I will be intrigued to see how the project develops and what it finds.

SusLab, Drawing Energy and Powerchord

My job at the Helen Hamlyn Centre as part of the RCA’s role in SusLab has ended when the RCA’s funding ended, although I am still contributing to the project by supporting other partners in analysis and writing up of the results, and co-editing an academic book with Professor David Keyson and Dr Olivia Guerra Santin from TU Delft.

From the UK perspective, our book Drawing Energy, on which Flora Bowden has led, with myself, Clare Brass and Rama Gheerawo as co-authors, should be published in June this year by the Helen Hamlyn Centre. I’ll put more details on the SusLab at the RCA blog when they’re available.

Powerchord, energy sonificationI am going to continue to work on Powerchord, the home energy sonification system, as a personal project. Being freed of the constraints of a major project ought to make this easier and faster, though of course without the benefit of funding. Claire Matthews has produced a brilliant range of sound schemes, and I’m hoping that a Mark II version of Powerchord using Jack Kelly’s approach to extracting CurrentCost/EDF individual appliance monitor data will prove more flexible than the previous approach. More news on this in due course.

Design with Intent

In February, while I was en route to Munich to talk at the wonderful Hans Sauer Foundation Social Design Elevation Days, a PHP upgrade by the webhost, combined with a long outdated version of MediaWiki meant that the Design with Intent website became unusable (blank, basically). My botched attempt to fix it rapidly via FTP, hotspotting from my phone in an airport departure lounge, made things worse. So I have put up a temporary site which has most of the same content, but does not have individual pages for each pattern. Something better is on the way when I get a spare weekend…

Creative Citizens’ Variety Pack: Inspiring digital ideas from community projects

varietypacks1

Launched at the Creative Citizens conference in September 2014, the Creative Citizens’ Variety Pack is a collection of practical case studies: 12 diverse, inspirational community projects, all making use of digital tools in creative ways for social benefit, with suggestions and advice from the people involved.

Along with projects from the three strands of the Creative Citizens projecthyperlocal publishing, community-led design and creative networkswe invited contributions from people working on interesting projects around the country, from beekeepers to bakers, storytelling to social media, and newspapers to graphic novels. Many of these projects are part of Connected Communities, a UK-wide programme designed to help connect community groups with academic research, jointly funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

indigo  storymachine  cannock

Our aim is for the Variety Pack to offer you something useful, whether you’re currently involved in a community project yourself, are looking for future ideas for your group, or just consider yourself a ‘creative citizen’. It’s intended as a practical complement to some of the more academically focused outputs from the Creative Citizens project. The book was designed by Lizzie Raby and Abbie Vickress, and edited by Dan Lockton, Catherine Greene, Alice Casey, Lizzie Raby and Abbie Vickress.

You can download the whole book (5.8 MB PDF) or browse the case studies below. If you would like printed copies, please contact the Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, hhcd@rca.ac.uk

Creative Citizens' Variety Pack: Introductory material

Foreword by Alice Casey, Innovation Lab, Nesta, looking at practical creativity and sharing knowledge

Welcome to the Creative Citizens’ Variety Pack, by Dan Lockton, Catherine Greene, Lizzie Raby and Abbie Vickress, Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, RCA.

Some useful resources and search terms, suggested by our contributors.

Download this section (PDF)

 

 

Reflective Citizens

Reflective Citizens: Some Creative Tactics for Communities

A short article by Ann Light, Northumbria University, discussing techniques for reflecting on what you do, as a way of supporting creativity in communities.

Download this section (PDF)

 

allsorts  cannock2  tidworth

Supporting Each Other Locally

These case studies are about using digital media to bring people with something in common together, connecting and supporting each other in their local area.

Tidworth Mums
Tidworth Mums

Louise Dredge and Charlotte Blakemore

Tidworth Mums wanted to support local families and help engage their wider community. They created a Facebook group to share information about local activities and services with other members of the local community.

Download the Tidworth Mums case study (PDF)

Tidworth Mums website

 

 

 

Social Media @ Allsorts

Social Media @ Allsorts

Allsorts Youth Project, Brighton
Olu Jenzen

Social Media @ Allsorts is a LGBTU (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and unsure) youth engagement project, exploring and using digital and social media to inform, campaign and reflect on the issues LGBTU young people face.

Download the Social Media @ Allsorts case study (PDF)

Allsorts’ website, Twitter and Facebook

 

 

 

Connect Cannock

Connect Cannock Newspaper Pilot

Jerome Turner and Dave Harte

Connect Cannock is a ‘hyperlocal’ news website serving a community where the local newspapers have ceased publication. In this project, Connect Cannock, together with researchers from Birmingham City University, encouraged local people to participate in the introduction of a new printed newspaper, which brought the website to the attention of a wider cross-section of the community.

Download the Connect Cannock Newspaper Pilot case study (PDF)

Connect Cannock website, Twitter and Facebook

 

 

digitalcommonwealth  storymachine2

Telling Stories

Two projects about enabling people’s voices to be heard, locally and beyond, using digital tools to create and share.

 

Story Machine at The Mill

The Story Machine at The Mill

Dan Lockton, Catherine Greene, Alan Outten, Lizzie Raby and Gail Ramster

The Story Machine is a mini-cinema/puppet booth/ video camera which enables the community’s stories to be told, seen and heard more widely and more easily, through a combination of digital technology and engaging ‘low-tech’ activities.

Download the Story Machine case study (PDF)

The Story Machine section on The Mill’s website

 

 

Digital Commonwealth

Digital Commonwealth

David McGillivray, Jennifer Jones, Alison McCandlish and Gayle McPherson

The Digital Commonwealth (DCW) project enables people and groups to make the best use of creative tools and digital technologies to tell their stories, making the process more accessible.

Download the Digital Commonwealth case study (PDF)

Digital Commonwealth website, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube channel

 

 

homebaked openplanning playyourplace wardscorner2

Placemaking

These projects are all about bringing together physical spaces with digital tools, enabling new opportunities for communities to make a difference locally.

 

Wards Corner Community Plan

Wards Corner Community Plan

Katerina Alexiou, Theodore Zamenopoulos and Giota Alevizou

Wards Corner Community Coalition wanted to find a more compelling and convenient way to engage their local community in developing their own vision for the area. They used the Stickyworld platform to create a 3D environment online that would help people engage in planning, and confront other plans for the site.

Download the Wards Corner Community Plan case study (PDF)

Wards Corner Community Plan blog, Stickyworld and Facebook

 

 

Play Your Place

Play Your Place

Ruth Catlow and Mary Flanagan

Play Your Place is a framework of playful, social drawing events and simple online game-building tools through which people draw, make and play games to develop a collective vision of their future locality.

Download the Play Your Place case study (PDF)

Play Your Place website, Twitter and Github

 

 

Open Planning

Open Planning

Lara Salinas

Open Planning is a Liverpool-based project aiming to empower and engage citizens in the local planning process, through a mobile phone app which improves communication channels with local authorities.

Download the Open Planning case study (PDF)

Open Planning website

 

 

Homebaked

Homebaked: An Oven at the Heart of Anfield

Samantha Jones

Homebaked is a community-owned bakery and community land trust in Liverpool, developed through a Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign. It provides local people with a choice of healthy food, job and training opportunities and a community meeting space.

Download the Homebaked case study (PDF)

Homebaked website, Twitter and Facebook

 

 

 

beelab indigo2 telltale

Building Skills Through Making Together

Projects that are about communities creating and learning together, using digital tools to make craft, art and technology for themselves.

Tell-Tale Technology

Tell-Tale Technology

Rachel Keller

Tell Tale Technology is a community project using the swipe technology found in contactless payments to enable digital storytelling, by linking textiles to video, audio, and photographs.

Download the Tell-Tale Technology case study (PDF)

Tell-Tale Technology website

 

 

Bee Lab

Bee Lab

Rob Phillips

Bee Lab is a project about enabling the beekeeping community to enhance care for bees, by harnessing the power of open design, DIY technology and citizen science.

Download the Bee Lab case study (PDF)

Bee Lab project details and Twitter

 

 

Indigo Babies with South Blessed
Indigo Babies with South Blessed

Emma Agusita, Jonathan Dovey and Shawn Sobers

Indigo Babies is a graphic novel, in both print and digital formats. It is published by the Bristol creative youth network South Blessed, to fund opportunities for young, creative people.

Download the Indigo Babies case study (PDF)

Indigo Babies website, Twitter and YouTube channel

 

varietypacks2

Contributors and organisations featured

Emma Agusita, Giota Alevizou, Katerina Alexiou, Charlotte Blakemore, Alice Casey, Ruth Catlow, Jonathan Dovey, Louise Dredge, Mary Flanagan, Catherine Greene, Dave Harte, Olu Jenzen, Jennifer Jones, Samantha Jones, Rachel Keller, Ann Light, Dan Lockton, Alison McCandlish, David McGillivray, Gayle McPherson, Alan Outten, Robert Phillips, Lizzie Raby, Gail Ramster, Lara Salinas, Shawn Sobers, Jerome Turner, Abbie Vickress and Theodore Zamenopoulos.

Allsorts Youth Project, Brighton; Birmingham City University – Birmingham Centre for Media & Cultural Research; Blackburn Girl Geeks; Connect Cannock; Engage Liverpool; Furtherfield; Homebaked Community Land Trust; Horizon Digital Economy Research; Lancaster University – Creative Exchange; Lancaster University – HighWire Centre; Liverpool City Council; Liverpool John Moores University; Liverpool Vision; Nesta; Northumbria University – School of Design; Open University – Department of Engineering & Innovation; RedNinja; Royal College of Art – Design Products; Royal College of Art – The Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design; South Blessed, Bristol; Technology Will Save Us; The British Beekeepers’ Association; The Glass-House Community Led Design; The Honey Club; The Mill E17, Walthamstow; Tidworth Mums, Wiltshire; Tiltfactor; University of Brighton – School of Art, Design & Media; University of Liverpool; University of the West of England – Digital Cultures Research Centre; University of the West of Scotland – Media Academy Knowledge Exchange; Wards Corner Community Coalition.

With special thanks to: Ingrid Abreu Scherer, Vince Baidoo, Louise Dredge, Margaret Durkan, Ian Hargreaves, Gail Ramster and Harriet Riley. And to Dareece, Emma, Jerome, Giota, Margaret and Caroline for helping put the Variety Packs together.

varietypacks3

Lockton, D., Greene, C., Casey, A., Raby, E., & Vickress, A. (Eds.) (2014). Creative Citizens’ Variety Pack: Inspiring digital ideas from community projects, London: Royal College of Art. ISBN 978-1-907342-97-4.

Dr Dan Lockton