Dr Dan Lockton

Dan Lockton

E-mail me: dan@danlockton.co.uk

About me | CV | Publications

About me

I specialise in what’s become known as design for behaviour change — understanding and influencing people’s behaviour for social and environmental benefit, through the design of products, services and environments. In March 2013 I joined the Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design at the Royal College of Art, London, working on the SusLabNWE project (INTERREG), Creative Citizens (AHRC Connected Communities / EPSRC), a number of executive education projects, and Creating Sustainable Innovation through Design for Behaviour Change (AHRC), on which I am a Co-Investigator.

I’m particularly interested in what might be termed public understanding of everyday systems — how we interpret and understand the technology and complex systems around us, how we interact with them, and what the consequences could be for design which seeks to influence change.

As Requisite Variety, I also run workshops, provide consultancy and do research at the interface between people and designed systems. I take a crossdisciplinary approach, drawing on ideas from a wide range of fields to help understand and frame problems.

Previously, I’ve been a research fellow at WMG, University of Warwick, and a research assistant at Brunel University, on Empower, a TSB-funded collaboration with CarbonCulture, a startup aiming to reduce workplace carbon footprint through connecting people with energy use data and their own behaviour in engaging ways, using a digital platform. For my PhD at Brunel, I developed the Design with Intent toolkit, an interaction design pattern library bringing together behavioural insights and examples into a form useful for designers.

I’ve taught environmentally sensitive design on Brunel’s product design courses, set a project for the RCA’s MA in Service Design, run workshops for the RCA’s cross-disciplinary AcrossRCA programme, and have been an occasional visiting lecturer at Central Saint Martins, Judge Business School (University of Cambridge) and Imperial College London, as well as a number of one-off lectures, workshops and projects for institutions including the Saïd Business School (University of Oxford), NTNU (Trondheim), Chalmers University of Technology (Gothenburg), Hamad bin Khalifa University (Doha), Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design, Parsons The New School for Design (New York), and for the 3TU consortium at the University of Twente (Enschede).

In the past, I’ve worked in R&D for Sir Clive Sinclair, including on some unusual folding bikes, and written a book on the Reliant Motor Company.

dan@danlockton.co.uk | February 2014

CV: Dan Lockton

Academic qualifications

PhD ‘Design with Intent: A design pattern toolkit for environmental & social behaviour change’, 2007–13. Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex (Cleaner Electronics Research Group, Brunel Design).
Development of Design with Intent, a design toolkit comprising patterns for influencing users’ behaviour. The aim is to improve the environmental performance of products through behaviour change, with wider applicability in interaction and system design for social benefit. Supervisors: Professor David Harrison, Brunel University and Professor Neville A. Stanton, University of Southampton.

MPhil Technology Policy, 2004–05. University of Cambridge, Downing College. (Cambridge-MIT Institute course, taught by Judge Institute of Management, Department of Engineering & Institute for Manufacturing). Concentrations: energy, sustainability, digital rights, innovation policy. Dissertation: Architectures of Control in Consumer Product Design.

BSc (Hons) Industrial Design Engineering, 2000–04. Brunel University, Runnymede, Surrey (Department of Design & Systems Engineering). Concentrations: environmentally sensitive design, CAD, design for manufacture. Major project: Wheelchair Drive.

Research interests

Design for social benefit; design for behaviour change; persuasive technology; design for sustainable behaviour; public understanding of everyday systems; information visualisation; public understanding of science; environmentally sensitive design; service design; participatory design; interaction design; human-computer interaction; human factors; cognitive ergonomics; pattern languages; user experience; decision-making; mental models; heuristics; systems theory; cybernetics; behavioural economics; architecture/built environment; practical technology; design methods; technology & society; technology policy; new product development; new manufacturing methods; open design; maker movement.

Current and recent research projects
Creating Sustainable Innovation through Design for Behaviour Change, 2014, Co-Investigator. Funded by AHRC.
This project aims to develop a multidisciplinary approach to investigating the opportunities and potential impact of sustainable innovation through design for behaviour change, with relevance to service providers in the key areas of social design and innovation, health, safety and ecological sustainability. Principal investigator: Dr Kristina Niedderer, University of Wolverhampton.

SusLabNWE, 2013-15, Senior Associate. Funded by Interreg IVB.
SusLabNWE is a European project integrating people-centred design with domestic energy and behaviour sensing. More details on the RCA’s part in the project.

Creative Citizens, 2013-14, Senior Associate. Funded by AHRC.
The Community-Led Design strand of the Media, Community and the Creative Citizen project (part of the Connected Communities programme) explores how digital technology can support and add value to community-led design projects, working with four diverse community groups in London.

EMPOWER: Empowering empathic energy efficiency design, 2010-12, Research Fellow (Warwick) / Research Assistant (Brunel). Funded by Technology Strategy Board, EPSRC and More Associates (total project value: £580k).
Led by CarbonCulture / More Associates in collaboration with Brunel Design and WMG at the University of Warwick, EMPOWER focused on better understanding the energy-use implications of people’s everyday interaction behaviour with workplaces, and developing a novel user-centred product/service system to reduce energy demand, working with the CarbonCulture platform being trialled by several UK government departments.

The research integrated insights from the latest work on design for behaviour change with a programme of user-driven product / service development, through a series of ethnographic investigations and participatory design workshops, providing a basis for commercial realisation. The expected benefits from better energy efficiency included both financial savings and CO2 emissions reduction, while the focus on engagement with building users aimed to improve working environments.

EMPOWER was one of four research programmes receiving investment from the Technology Strategy Board following a week-long creative sandpit on the theme of User-Centred Design for Energy Efficiency in Buildings in March 2010. Brunel’s part in the project was led by Professor David Harrison as Principal Investigator; Warwick’s by Dr Rebecca Cain.

Watts and Trevs, 2012-. Funded by Requisite Variety.
In collaboration with Kiersten Nash of Parsons The New School for Design in New York, I am investigating consumer understanding of the units commonly used for monitoring and pricing domestic electricity use. The basic question is whether expressing power explicitly as “energy-per-time” (e.g. kJ/hr) rather than as a unit which is itself a rate (e.g. W) aids consumer ability to calculate energy use and costs when paired with changes to the units in which electricity prices are expressed. The study is being undertaken mainly via Amazon Mechanical Turk.

Making Instructions, 2012-13. Funded by Brighton Mini Maker Faire.
With Rob Phillips (Brunel University, Open Design Research Group), this project involved developing “asking people to create instructions for others” as a research method for understanding people’s mental models of systems. Running practical engagement activities at the 2012 Brighton Mini Maker Faire, we investigated visitors’ experiences with using and understanding instructions (often a stumbling-block in becoming involved in the ‘maker’ movement), and asked them to create instructions for others. An article exploring the approach has been published in ACM Interactions’ ‘On Modelling’ forum.

Academic experience

Research

Royal College of Art, Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, Senior Associate, Work & City Lab / Age & Ability Lab, 2013-

University of Warwick, WMG, Research Fellow, Experiential Engineering, 2011-12

Brunel University, School of Engineering & Design, Research Assistant, Environmentally Sensitive Design, 2010-12

Papers reviewed for Applied Ergonomics, Ergonomics, Computers in Human Behavior, International Journal of Design, Journal of Design Research, The Design Journal, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, Sustainability, Philosophy & Technology, Scan: Journal of Media Arts Culture, Journal of Economic Surveys, Review of Behavioural Economics, CHI 2013, CHI 2014, Ubicomp 2014, Include Asia 2013, EPIC 2013 and Hawai’i International Conference on System Sciences. Member of scientific committee for Persuasive 2015, IIT Institute of Design, Chicago and international executive committee for EcoDesign 2015, Tokyo. Grant applications reviewed for Sustainable Society Network+ and Fond National de la Recherche Luxembourg.

Teaching / lecturing

Royal College of Art, Organiser & project brief, 2013, AcrossRCA interdisciplinary project; MA Service Design visiting lecturer / project brief
Imperial College London, Visiting speaker & project brief, 2013-14, Design-led Innovation & New Venture Creation module
Brunel University, School of Engineering & Design, Lecturer (part-time), 2011-12. Teaching on DM3316 Environmentally Sensitive Design (Level 3) for design undergraduates
Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Guest instructor, 2011-12, TP2 Seminars in Technology Policy for MPhil Technology Policy course
Central Saint Martins College of Art & Design, University of the Arts, London, Visiting practitioner, 2010-12. Invited presentations to graphic design students and service design short courses on design for behaviour change
University College London, Guest speaker, 2012, UCL Behaviour Change Month, addressing Was Churchill right? “First we shape our buildings, thereafter they shape us”
Royal College of Art, London, Guest speaker, 2012, SusLabNWE Launch Event
Saïd Business School, University of Oxford, Guest speaker, 2011, Designing Better Futures course (Saïd MBA + London College of Communication MDes)
Parsons, The New School for Design, New York, Guest speaker, 2011, Transdisciplinary Design MFA
Brunel University, School of Information Systems, Computing and Mathematics, Guest lecturer / workshop facilitator, 2011, undergraduate HCI module
Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Guest lecturer, 2011, Sustainable Product Design for Department of Product Design
Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design, Invited presentation to design students and discussion on design for behaviour change, 2010
Brunel University, School of Engineering & Design, Teaching assistant / demonstrator, 2007–10. Assistance and assessment for Analogue Electronics labs (Level 2) and Environmentally Sensitive Design projects (Level 3) for design undergraduates, and Sustainable Design for MSc Integrated Product Design postgraduates including design for sustainable behaviour workshop sessions addressing everyday energy, water and resource use

Other activities (events, mentoring, judging, groups, etc)

Hamad bin Khalifa University Social Innovation Bootcamp 1, co-facilitator, Doha, Qatar, March 2014
NASA / HSB Living Lab / Chalmers ‘Rethinking Laundry on Earth and in Space’ hackathon, organiser / facilitator (with Flora Bowden), Gothenburg, February 2014
SusLab Home Energy Hackday, organiser / facilitator (with Flora Bowden), London, November 2013
Core77 / Autodesk / iFixit Design For (Your) Product Lifetime Student Challenge, Judge, November 2012
Forum for the Future / BUPA Spark! Competition, Judge, May 2012
Chelsea College of Art & Design, MA Designing Interactions Student Design Challenge, Judge, March 2012
Global Service Jam 2012, Mentor, Service Jam London, February 2012
IxDA Student Challenge 2012, Invited presentation to competition finalists on behaviour and design, Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design & Technology, February 2012
Design for Conversion, competition judge, Cologne, July 2011
Good for Nothing, Participant, creative collaboration event, working on Global Generation urban agriculture project, London, December 2010
Design and Behaviour online discussion group, Founder / co-administrator, 2008–present (mostly active 2008-9). A discussion group and mailing list bringing together designers, engineers, psychologists and social science researchers interested or working in the field of influencing behaviour, http://designandbehaviour.com
Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA), Design Directions student competition, 2009. Invited to help develop briefs on design for behaviour change as part of the 2009-10 competition open to UK design students; Design with Intent toolkit cited as reference material. Participation in RSA seminar on applying ingenuity to 21st century problems, October 2010
Participation in academic doctoral consortia at Persuasive 2008, Oulu; Persuasive 2009, Claremont; Persuasive 2010, Copenhagen; NDM9, London

Behaviour change workshops and consultancy to industry & government

For the Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, in 2013-14 I have been involved in planning and delivering executive education, workshops and consultancy around inclusive design and people-centred design processes for NASA Johnson Space Center / HSB Living Lab, Qatar Foundation, Stannah and startups in the London Creative & Digital Fusion programme; I have also carried out research and produced a literature review for Arup and the Royal Academy of Engineering.

In 2008-12, I have run Design with Intent workshops and exercises for Philips Research, Eindhoven; for Jaguar Land Rover (via WMG); with IDEO and the RSA for the National Policing Improvement Agency, London; for the Modern Built Environment Knowledge Transfer Network at a day on ‘Changing User Behaviour'; three workshops for Clearleft at UX London 2010 and dConstruct 2011; for Stanford University’s Persuasive Technology Lab, at the Persuasive 2010 conference, Copenhagen; for Brighton & Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust at the Design Council, London; with Ripple PRD for West Sussex County Council, Horsham; for the 3TU Federation’s Design for Usability project at the University of Twente, Netherlands; at UX People 2011 in London for Zebra People; and at the IxDA Interaction 12 conference in Dublin. I’ve also run academic workshops on Design with Intent at the Norwegian Institute of Science & Technology, Trondheim and at Brunel for Design BA, BSc and MSc students as part of modules on Environmentally Sensitive Design and Sustainable Design, and Information Systems & Computing BSc students as part of a module in HCI, as well as controlled brainstorming workshops for my PhD, with both students and practising designers.

The areas of behaviour change addressed in the workshops have included increasing public engagement with the police, oral healthcare, improved user experience for a variety of websites, a range of hospital staff and patient behaviours for safety and productivity, building local authority behaviour change expertise, and encouraging building users to be comfortable with greater seasonal temperature variations.

As part of the EMPOWER project, I have helped run ethnographic studies, interviews and user engagement workshops with More Associates‘ CarbonCulture project at the Department of Energy & Climate Change, London. Other work with More Associates includes preparation of a state-of-art review on feedback methods for influencing sustainable behaviour, and participation in More’s idea generation workshop for Bovis Lend-Lease, Olympic Park, Stratford, London.

Aside from running workshops, I have consulted for and/or given presentations on design and behaviour change to: R/GA, London; Ubisoft, Paris; Dyson, Malmesbury; Unilever (Lifebuoy), London; Stannah, Andover (for the RCA); Spice (time credits), London; HMRC, London; QinetiQ, Sevenoaks; Marks & Spencer, London; Engine service design, London; UFI Learndirect, Sheffield; EMC Consulting, London; Foviance, London; Design Council, London; Nando’s, London (with Futerra); and the Technology Strategy Board, Swindon, on visit to Brunel.

In 2010 I was invited to discuss applying Design with Intent to behaviour change for financial decision-making in the US mortgage market and low-income banking sector by Harvard University‘s ideas42 think-tank. In 2009 I was invited to discuss the design of smart energy meters with the UK government’s Department of Energy & Climate Change, resulting in the Design & Behaviour group submission to DECC’s consultation. For the Design Council, I have taken part in an ‘expert workshop’ on using design to reduce violence and aggression in A&E, January 2011. For the Modern Built Environment Knowledge Transfer Network, I was invited to take part in a discussion at BRE, Watford, on user behaviour in dwellings in December 2010, and then to give a presentation and run an exercise at an event on user behaviour in buildings in March 2011. For Forum for the Future I was invited to take part in the ‘Tea 2030′ workshop on sustainable tea production and use, London, in March 2012. I’m also a member of the Institute for Government’s informal Behaviour Change network, which examines issues of behaviour change for social benefit from a variety of policy and practice perspectives.

Publications

Wherever possible I have provided a link to an open-access, free downloadable version of publications.

Academic and professional journal articles

2014

Lockton, D., Nicholson, L., Cain, R., Harrison, D. ‘Persuasive Technology for Sustainable Workplaces’. Interactions Vol.21 No.1, pp. 58-61, 2014. (paywall version doi:10.1145/2544170 / free open access version PDF)

2013

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., Stanton, N.A. ‘Exploring design patterns for sustainable behaviour’. The Design Journal Vol.16 No. 4, pp. 431-459, 2013 (paywall version doi:10.2752/175630613X13746645186124 / free draft version PDF)

Gorzanelli, C., Ramster, G., Outten, A., Lockton, D. ‘Cittadini e nuovi media per un’intelligenza creativa’ [Citizens and new media for a creative intelligence]. Urbanistica Tre Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 75-84, 2013 (free open access PDF)

Phillips, R., Lockton, D., Baurley, S., Silve, S. ‘Making instructions for others: exploring mental models through a simple exercise’. Interactions Vol.20 No.5, pp. 74-79, Sept-Oct 2013. (paywall version doi:10.1145/2505290 / free open access version PDF)

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., Cain, R., Stanton, N.A., Jennings, P. ‘Exploring problem-framing through behavioural heuristics’. International Journal of Design Vol.7 No.1, April 2013 (free open access PDF)

2012

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., Stanton, N.A. ‘Models of the user: designers’ perspectives on influencing sustainable behaviour’. Journal of Design Research Vol.10 No.1/2, pp.7-27, 2012 (paywall version doi:10.1504/JDR.2012.046137 / free open access version PDF)

2010

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., Stanton, N.A. ‘The Design with Intent Method: a design tool for influencing user behaviour’. Applied Ergonomics Vol.41 No.3, pp. 382-392, May 2010 (paywall version doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2009.09.001 / free open access version)

Bisset, F. and Lockton, D. ‘Designing Motivation or Motivating Design? Exploring service design, motivation and behavioural change’. Touchpoint: The Journal of the Service Design Network Vol.2 No.1, April/May 2010 (paywall version / free version PDF)

Marsh, N. and Lockton, D. ‘Research in practice: Bringing behaviour change from lab to studio’. Touchpoint: The Journal of the Service Design Network Vol.2 No.1, April/May 2010 (paywall version / free version PDF

2009

Lockton, D. ‘Design for sustainable behaviour: influencing users to improve efficiency of product use’. Interfaces 78, British Computer Society Interaction Group, Spring 2009 (free open access PDF)

2008

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., Stanton, N.A. ‘Making the user more efficient: Design for sustainable behaviour’. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering Vol.1 No. 1, pp. 3-8, March 2008 (paywall version doi:10.1080/19397030802131068 / free open access version)

2006

Lockton, D. ‘Architectures of Control in product design’. Engineering Designer: The Journal of the Institution of Engineering Designers, March/April 2006 (free open access PDF)

Academic conference papers

2014

Lockton, D., Bowden, F., Brass, C. & Gheerawo, R. ‘Powerchord: Towards ambient appliance-level electricity use feedback through real-time sonification’. UCAmI 2014: 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing & Ambient Intelligence, 2-5 December 2014, Belfast (free draft version PDF)

Lockton, D., Bowden, F., Brass, C. & Gheerawo, R. ‘Bird-wattching: exploring sonification of home electricity use with birdsong’. SoniHED – Conference on Sonification of Health and Environmental Data, 12 September 2014, York (forthcoming; free paper PDF)

Lockton, D., Renström, S., Bowden, F., Rahe, U., Brass, C. & Gheerawo, R. ‘Energy storytelling through annotating everyday life’. BEHAVE 2014: 3rd European Conference on Behaviour and Energy Efficiency, 3-4 September 2014, Oxford (free paper PDF)

Niedderer, K., MacKrill, J., Clune, S., Evans, M., Lockton, D., Ludden, G., Morris, A., Gutteridge, R., Gardiner, E., Cain, R. & Hekkert, P. ‘Joining Forces: Investigating the influence of design for behaviour change on sustainable innovation’. NordDesign 2014: 10th biannual conference on design and development, 27-29 August 2014, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland (free paper PDF)

Baedeker, C., Greiff, K., Grinewitschus, V., Hasselkuß, M., Keirstead, J., Keyson, D., Knutsson, J., Liedtke, C., Lockton, D., Lovric, T., Morrison, G., van Rijn, M., Rohn, H., Silvester, S., van Harinxma, W. & Virdee, L. ‘Transition through sustainable Product and Service Innovations in Sustainable Living Labs: application of user-centred research methodology within four Living Labs in Northern Europe’. IST 2014 : 5th International conference on Sustainability Transitions, 27-29 August 2014, Utrecht (free paper PDF)

Greene, C., Sobers, S., Zamenopoulos, T., Ramster, G. & Lockton, D. ‘Reflections on co-production – the community perspective’. Royal Geographical Society 2014 Annual International Conference, 26-29 August 2014, London (acccepted abstract).

Lockton, D., Renström, S., Bowden, F., Rahe, U., Brass, C. & Gheerawo, R. ‘Narrating energy through annotating everyday life’. Royal Geographical Society 2014 Annual International Conference, 26-29 August 2014, London (forthcoming; accepted abstract).

Bowden, F., Lockton, D., Brass, C. & Gheerawo, R. ‘Drawing Energy: Exploring the Aesthetics of the Invisible’. IAEA Congress 2014: Congress of the International Association of Empirical Aesthetics, 22-24 August 2014, New York (free paper PDF)

2013

Lockton, D., Bowden, F., Greene, C., Brass, C. & Gheerawo, R. ‘SusLabNWE: Integrating qualitative and quantitative data to understand people’s everyday energy behavior’. BECC 2013: Behavior, Energy & Climate Change, 18-20 November 2013, Sacramento, CA, University of California eScholarship repository (free open access)

Lockton, D., Bowden, F., Greene, C., Brass, C. & Gheerawo, R. ‘People and energy: A design-led approach to understanding everyday energy use behaviour’. EPIC 2013: Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference, 15-18 September 2013, Royal Institution, London. (free open access doi: 10.1111/j.1559-8918.2013.00029.x)

Lockton, D., Cain, R., Harrison, D., Nicholson, L. ‘CarbonCulture at DECC: Digital Engagement for Sustainability at Work’. HCI 2013: 27th International British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Conference: The Internet of things, London, 9-13 September, 2013. (free open access)

2011

Lockton, D., Cain, R., Harrison, D., Giudice, S., Nicholson, L. & Jennings, P. ‘Behaviour Change at Work: empowering energy efficiency in the workplace through user-centred design’. BECC 2011: Behavior, Energy & Climate Change, Washington, DC, November 30-December 2, 2011, University of California eScholarship repository (free open access)

2010

Lockton, D., Harrison, D. & Stanton, N. A. ‘Modelling the User: How design for sustainable behaviour can reveal different stakeholder perspectives on human nature’. In ERSCP-EMSU 2010, Delft, Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, Proceedings, TU Delft (free open access PDF)

2009

Lockton, D., Harrison, D. & Stanton, N. A. ‘Design for Sustainable Behaviour: investigating design methods for influencing user behaviour’. In Sustainable Innovation 09: Towards Sustainable Product Design 14, Farnham, UK, 26-27 October 2009, Proceedings, Centre for Sustainable Design, Farnham (free open access version)

Lockton, D., Harrison, D. & Stanton, N.A. ‘Choice Architecture and Design with Intent’. In Wong, W & Stanton, N.A. (eds.), NDM9 – 9th Bi-annual International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, June 23-26, 2009, London, UK, Doctoral Consortium Proceedings, British Computer Society, Swindon (free open access)

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., Holley, T., & Stanton, N. A. ‘Influencing Interaction: Development of the Design with Intent Method’. In Persuasive Technology: Fourth International Conference, Persuasive 2009, Claremont, California, April 27-29, 2009, Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, New York (paywall version doi:10.1145/1541948.1541956 / free open access version)

2008

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., & Stanton, N.A. ‘Design with Intent: Persuasive Technology in a Wider Context’. In H. Oinas-Kukkonen, P. Hasle, M. Harjumaa, K. Segerstahl, & P. Ohrstrom (Eds.), Persuasive Technology: Third International Conference, Persuasive 2008, Oulu, Finland, June 4-6, 2008, Proceedings (p. 274—278), Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 5033, Springer, Berlin (paywall version doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68504-3_30 / free open access version)

Academic seminars/posters/workshops

2014

Greene, C., Lockton, D., Alexiou, K., Alevizou, G. & Zamenopoulos, T. ‘Community Led Design’. Workshop at Creative Citizens: The Conference, 18-19 September 2014, Royal College of Art, London.

Lockton, D., Bowden, F., Renström, S., Selvefors, A., Hagbert, P., Baedeker, C. & Ameli, N. ‘Designing with people in sustainability and behaviour change research’. Workshop at DRS 2014: Design Research Society International Conference, 15-19 June 2014, Umeå, Sweden (abstract)

Lockton, D. ‘Model(led) Citizens: Scenarios and design in the era of ‘behaviour change’’. Oxford Futures Forum 2014, 30-31 May 2014, Oxford (forthcoming; accepted abstract).

Lockton, D. ‘Determinism, Cybernetics and Co-Design: Smart Cities and even smarter citizens’. Behaviour Change and Psychological Governance: Changing spaces, urban planning and neuroarchitecture, ESRC seminar series, 24 March 2014, University of Bristol. Abstract.

2012

Lockton, D. ‘Behaviour change at work: The CarbonCulture project’. ADMIER/ESPRU Household Energy Consumption, Technology and Efficiency seminar, University of Birmingham School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 7 June 2012.

2010

Lockton, D., Harrison, D., & Stanton, N. A. ‘Concept Generation for Persuasive Design’. In Persuasive Technology: Fifth International Conference, Persuasive 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 7-9, 2010, poster proceedings, University of Oulu Department of Information Processing Science (free open access)

2008

Lockton, D., ‘Design with Intent: behaviour-shaping through design’. New Sciences of Protection: Designing Safe Living, Institute for Advanced Studies, Lancaster University, July 2008.

Books, book chapters & toolkits

2014

Lockton, D., Greene, C., Casey, A., Raby, E., & Vickress, A. (Eds.) Creative Citizens’ Variety Pack: Inspiring digital ideas from community projects, London: Royal College of Art, September 2014. ISBN 978-1-907342-97-4. free open access PDF

Lockton, D., Greene, C., Ramster, G., Outten, A., & Raby, E. ‘The Story Machine’ in Lockton, D., Greene, C., Casey, A., Raby, E., & Vickress, A. (Eds.) Creative Citizens’ Variety Pack: Inspiring digital ideas from community projects, London: Royal College of Art, September 2014. free open access PDF

Jenkins, D and Lockton, D. ‘Human Factors and Ergonomics practice for Consumer Products’ in Shorrock, S. and Williams, C. (eds.), Human Factors and Ergonomics in Practice, Farnham: Ashgate (forthcoming)

2013

Nodder, C. Evil by Design: interaction design to lead us into temptation, 2013, New York: Wiley [Technical editor]

Lockton, D. ‘Williams, Tom Lawrence [Laurie] (1890–1964)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, May 2013 update, Oxford: Oxford University Press (free open access doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/103411)

Lockton, D. ‘Interview with Dan Lockton’ in Savić, S. and Savičić, G. (eds.), Unpleasant Design, Belgrade: GLORIA

2010

Lockton, D., Harrison, D.J., Stanton, N.A. Design with Intent: 101 Patterns for Influencing Behaviour Through Design v.1.0, Windsor: Equifine 2010 (ISBN 978-0-9565421-0-6 print; 978-0-9565421-1-3 free eBook)

Lockton, D., Harrison, D.J., Stanton, N.A. ‘Design for Behaviour Change’ in A.M. Columbus (Ed.): Advances in Psychology Research 67/69, Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers 2010 (email me for a copy)

Lockton, D. ‘Design with Intent: Influencing people’s behaviour through products & services’ in B. Davey et al (Eds.), 250 Innovative Ideas: Made in Brunel 2010, Papadakis, London 2010 (free open access)

2009

Lockton, D., Harrison, D.J., Stanton, N.A. Design for Behaviour Change: The Design with Intent Toolkit v.0.9, Uxbridge: Brunel University Press 2009 (ISBN 978-1-902316-6-1 print; 978-1-902316-63-5 free eBook)

2004

Weightman, C., Lockton, D., Hanson, J.E. et al (Eds.). Good Thinking: Brunel Design 04, Runnymede: Brunel University Press 2004 (ISBN 1-902316-41-X print)

2003

Lockton, D. Rebel Without Applause: The Reliant Company from Inception to Zenith, Minster Lovell: Bookmarque 2003. (ISBN 978-1-8705196-4-9 print)

Newspaper, magazine and other articles

2014

Lockton, D. ‘A case study on inclusive design: ethnography and energy use’, Ethnography Matters, 13 February 2014

2013

Lockton, D. ‘Design for repair: empowering consumers to fix the future’, Guardian Sustainable Business, 29 May 2013

Lockton, D. ‘Design for sustainability: making green behaviour easy’, Guardian Sustainable Business, 20 March 2013

2009

Lockton, D. ‘Designing with intent’. Review of Greengaged session Design for Life: Barriers to Behaviour Change. Invited article for Design Council / Greengaged website, September 2009

2008

Lockton, D. ‘A history of Tamworth’s Reliant cars’, BBC Stoke & Staffordshire, published 25 July 2008 (written c.2003)

Lockton, D. ‘J.G. Ballard and architectures of control’, Ballardian, January 2008

2007

Lockton, D. ‘Limiting frequency of cigarette use’. Invited article for Design TAXI, April 2007

2006

Lockton, D. ‘Not Purrrrrfect: The Reliant Kitten’, Original Tin No. 2, September 2006

Lockton, D. ‘Double-edged sword: The Reliant Scimitar SS1′, AROnline, the Unofficial Austin-Rover Web Resource, May 2006

2005

Meredith-Lobay, M., Lockton, D. and Painter, A-J. ‘Who do they think they are? Americans on America’. Gown magazine, University of Cambridge, Lent 2005

Lockton, D. ‘Designs on your freedom’. Gown magazine, University of Cambridge, Easter 2005

Working papers

2012

Lockton, D. ‘Persuasive Technology and Digital Design for Behaviour Change’. Working paper, August 2012 (free open access)

Lockton, D. ‘Simon’s scissors and ecological psychology in design for behaviour change’. Working paper, August 2012 (free open access)

Lockton, D. ‘Social and interpersonal approaches to design for behaviour change’. Working paper, August 2012 (free open access)

Lockton, D. ‘Cognitive biases, heuristics and decision-making in design for behaviour change’. Working paper, August 2012 (free open access)

Lockton, D. ‘Attitudes, meaning, emotion and motivation in design for behaviour change’. Working paper, August 2012 (free open access)

Lockton, D. ‘Affordances, constraints and information flows as ‘leverage points’ in design for sustainable behaviour’. Working paper, April 2012 (free open access)

Lockton, D. ‘POSIWID and determinism in design for behaviour change’. Working paper, April 2012 (free open access)

2011

Lockton, D. ‘Architecture, urbanism, design and behaviour: a brief review’. Working paper, September 2011 (webpage version; PDF ‘paper’ version coming soon)

Lockton, D. ‘Design and behaviourism: a brief review’. Working paper, July 2011 (webpage version; PDF ‘paper’ version coming soon)

Reports commissioned for clients, partners & projects

Niedderer, K., Cain, R., Clune, S., Lockton, D., Ludden, G., Mackrill, J., Morris. A., Evans, M., Gardiner, E., Gutteridge, R. and Hekkert. P. Creating Sustainable Innovation through Design for Behaviour Change: Summary Report. University of Wolverhampton, September 2014. ISBN 978-0-9560204-7-5

Alexiou, K., Alevizou, G., Zamenopoulos, T., Greene, C. and Lockton, D. ‘Community Led Design’, in Hargreaves, I. (ed.), Creative Citizens: First Findings. Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design, Royal College of Art, September 2014.

CarbonCulture Team and DECC. ‘CarbonCulture at DECC Summary Report: Can user engagement save energy and carbon at work? An exploration of behavioural economics at the Department of Energy and Climate Change’. For the CarbonCulture / EMPOWER project (More Associates, Brunel University, University of Warwick), September 2012. (free open access PDF)

CarbonCulture Team and DECC. ‘How can user engagement save energy and carbon at work? An Exploration of Behavioural Economics at the Department of Energy and Climate Change’. For the CarbonCulture / EMPOWER project (More Associates, Brunel University, University of Warwick), September 2012. (free open access)

Lockton, D. ‘Report on ‘Energy use and you’ ethnography sessions at Brunel University’. For the CarbonCulture / EMPOWER project (More Associates, Brunel University, University of Warwick), April 2011.

Lockton, D. ‘Energy use and behaviour change at Brunel University’. For the CarbonCulture / EMPOWER project (More Associates, Brunel University, University of Warwick), March 2011.

Lockton, D. ‘Report on ‘Mental models of HVAC systems’ ethnography sessions at DECC’. For the CarbonCulture / EMPOWER project (More Associates, Brunel University, University of Warwick), January 2011.

Lockton, D. ‘EMPOWER workshop report on Product Impact Symposium, University of Twente’. For the CarbonCulture / EMPOWER project (More Associates, Brunel University, University of Warwick), December 2010.

Lockton, D. ‘Comfort, energy & behaviour in the workplace: A review’. For the CarbonCulture / EMPOWER project (More Associates, Brunel University, University of Warwick), November 2010.

Lockton, D. ‘Design for behaviour change: A review’. For the CarbonCulture / EMPOWER project (More Associates, Brunel University, University of Warwick), November 2010.

Lockton, D. ‘Behaviour Change: State-of-Art Review’. For More Associates, London, March 2010.

Patent applications

– Moar, P. and Lockton, D. ‘Dispenser tube comprising piston on threaded shaft’. Filed 26 August 2011, publication number GB2493979

– Lockton, D. ‘Back up light for standard lamp fitting’. Filed 14 June 2006, publication number GB2435319 [withdrawn]

Miscellaneous other articles – see below

Other conference and exhibition presentations & workshops

Big Potatoes Manifesto for Design: London, June 2012. Debate: ‘Upholding humanism – or centreing on users?’ Invited to argue against the Big Potatoes manifesto perspective on user-centred design and design for behaviour change.
IxDA Interaction 12: Dublin, February 2012. Workshop: ‘Design with Intent: Understanding users and influencing behaviour’.
BECC 2011, Behavior, Energy & Climate Change: Washington, DC, November-December 2011. Presentation: ‘Behavior Change at Work: Empowering Energy Efficiency in the Workplace Through User-Centered Design’.
UX People 2011: London, November 2011. Workshop (invited): ‘Running a gamut of gambits: exploring behaviour change strategies and design’.
dConstruct 2011: Brighton, August/September 2011. Workshop (invited): ‘Influencing behaviour: people, products, services and systems’.
Design for Conversion, 6th edition: Cologne, July 2011. Presentation (invited) – ‘Design, mental models and behaviour change’.
Designing Better Futures: Saïd Business School, Oxford, July 2011. Presentation (invited) – ‘Design and behaviour change for environmental benefit’.
User Experience for Social Change: UK Usability Professionals’ Association event, London, May 2011. Presentation (invited) – ‘Design with Intent: Influencing user behaviour for social benefit’.
Changing User Behaviour in Buildings: Modern Built Environment Knowledge Transfer Network event, London, March 2011. Presentation (invited) – ‘Using Design to Influence Behaviour in Buildings’.
London IA Meetup: London, February 2011. Presentation (invited): ‘Change, Work with, Ignore, Fail? Mental models, behaviour & choice architecture’.
Product Impact Symposium: University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands, November 2010. Presentation (invited) – ‘The Design with Intent toolkit and the EMPOWER project’.
ERSCP-EMSU 2010: TU Delft, Netherlands, October 2010. Presentation: ‘Modelling the user: how design for sustainable behaviour can reveal different stakeholder perspectives on human nature’.
Design for Persuasion 2010: Ghent, Belgium, September 2010. Presentation (invited) – ‘Mental Model Matching and Behaviour Change’.
Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design: Invited presentation to design students and discussion on design for behaviour change, June 2010.
Persuasive 2010: Royal School of Library & Information Science, Copenhagen, June 2010. Workshop run for Stanford University Persuasive Technology Lab: ‘Design with Intent: Using Design Patterns to Develop New Persuasive Technology Applications’.
Persuasive 2010: Royal School of Library & Information Science, Copenhagen, June 2010. Poster: ‘Concept generation for Persuasive Design using the Design with Intent toolkit’.
UX London 2010: London, May 2010. Two workshops (invited): ‘Design with Intent: How to influence behaviour online’.
Central Saint Martins College of Art & Design: Invited presentation to graphic design students and discussion on design for behaviour change, April 2010.
Loughborough University DeSRes 2010: Presentation on PhD research, April 2010.
Design for Persuasion 2009: Belgacom Surfhouse / Hogeschool West-Vlaanderen, Brussels, October 2009. Presentation (invited): ‘How to influence user behaviour: Design with Intent’.
Sustainable Innovation 09: Farnham, UK, October 2009. Presentation: ‘Design for Sustainable Behaviour: investigating design methods for influencing user behaviour’.
NDM9: British Computer Society, London, June 2009. Doctoral consortium presentation: ‘Choice Architecture and Design with Intent’.
Architectures of Control Symposium: Loughborough University, May 2009. Presentation (invited): ‘Architectures of Control: Design with Intent’.
Skillswap Goes Behavioural: Clearleft, Brighton, May 2009. Presentation (invited): ‘Design with Intent: How designers can influence behaviour’.
Persuasive 2009: Claremont Colleges, California, April 2009. Presentation: ‘Influencing Interaction: Development of the Design with Intent Method’.
Design-Behaviour: Making It Happen: engCETL, Loughborough University, October 2008. Presentation (invited): ‘Design for Sustainable Behaviour: Easier Efficiency by Influencing Interaction’.
Human Centred Design Institute seminar series: Brunel University, October 2008. Presentation (invited): ‘Design with Intent: How designers can influence interaction and help users help themselves’.
New Sciences of Protection: Designing Safe Living: Institute for Advanced Studies, Lancaster University, July 2008. Presentation (invited): ‘Design with Intent: behaviour-shaping through design’.
ReSCon 2008: Engineering & Design Student Conference: Brunel University, June 2008. Poster: ‘Design for Sustainable Behaviour’
Persuasive 2008: Oulu, Finland, June 2008. Presentation: ‘Design with Intent: Peruasive Technology in a Wider Context’.

Industrial experience prior to PhD

2004-07 Dan Lockton Research, Design & Engineering: Design, R&D and writing for clients including Sinclair Research, Tangerine, Mayhem and PtS. Variety of work including engineering and prototyping of radical future vehicles (with Ben Wilson), corporate identity & smartphone market segmentation research, toy design & prototyping, mechanical design of pharmaceutical packaging equipment, setting up collaborative blogs for designers, a series of 40 articles for the Inventor Resource website, and the independent development of Incluminate, a lighting backup system.

2002-03 Daka Research (UK) / Sinclair Research: Industrial design engineer. Lightweight transport design. Development of A-Bike, electric vehicles & wheelchair accessories for international markets, including FEA, solid modelling, concept generation and testing, prototyping, competitor analysis, technical investigation, literature production and customer-facing roles at trade shows.

Awards

2014 AT Kearney Global Business Policy Scholarship to attend Oxford Futures Forum
2013 BCS HCI 2013: The Internet of Things, Best Short Paper award
2013 Hamilton Prize for best doctoral thesis, Brunel University School of Engineering & Design
2009-10 Thomas Gerald Gray Charitable Trust PhD Studentship
2009 Royal Academy of Engineering International Travel Grant to attend Persuasive 2009
2008 Fellowship of the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA)
2008 Vice-Chancellor’s Travel Prize to attend Persuasive 2008
2007-9 Ormsby Trust Design PhD Studentship
2007 Oxford Creativity Assistive Technology/TRIZ Competition, prize-winner
2006 Bosch Technology Horizons Award, runner-up
2006 Isambard Kingdom Brunel Award for Incluminate backup lighting system
2005 Cambridge University Entrepreneurs Award, winner for Wheelchair Drive project
2004 Motion Drives & Controls Award, winner for Wheelchair Drive project

Professional memberships

Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, fellow (FRSA); Institution of Engineering Designers; Design Research Society; ACM SIGCHI; British Computer Society Interaction group; Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors; Usability Professionals’ Association; IEEE Systems, Man & Cybernetics Society


Miscellaneous other articles

Design, architecture and behaviour
– Lockton, D. ‘How do people understand heating, energy use and behaviour at [XYZ organisation]?’. Invited article for intranet blog at a UK public sector organisation, based on on ethnographic interviews with staff, March 2011.

Plus the Architectures of Control / Design with Intent blog (2005 to date; 350+ published posts).

Technology, policy and society
– Lockton, D. ‘What will be the major drivers of technological change in the 21st century and how should we address the opportunities and risks it could bring?’, for Bosch / Royal Academy of Engineering Technology Horizons competition (runner-up), 2006 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Peer treasure: how firms outside the software industry can use open source thinking’. March 2005 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘How can we strengthen links between entrepreneurial companies and entrepreneurial universities in the UK?’ March 2005 (link)

Motor industry
– Lockton, D. ‘Motor vehicles in the developing world: options for sustainability’. (link)

Invention and entrepreneurship
– Lockton, D. ‘Applying for a Loan’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Applying for a Patent’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Balance Sheets’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Becoming an Entrepreneur’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Break Even Analysis’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Capital Equipment and Supply List’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Carrying Out a Commercial Assessment on Your Invention’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Conflicts of Interest’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Design Patents’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Experimentation’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Government Programmes’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘How Do I Raise Money for an Invention?’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘How to Avoid an Invention Company Scam’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘How to Do Your Own Preliminary Patent Search’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Improving Old Products’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Invention Promoters’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Investor Venture Capital’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Loan Applications For Your Invention’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘New Product Income Projections’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Non-Disclosure Agreements’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Obtaining Plant Patents When Discovering New Varieties of Plant’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Patent Examining Procedure’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Patent Search’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Presenting the Product’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Product Definition and Specifications’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Product Development Stages’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Proving You Were First to Invent’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Researching The Market’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Royalty Income Stream’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Securing a Licensing Agreement For Your Invention’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Student Programmes and Young Inventors’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘The Invention Process – Gaining Inspiration & Utilising It’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘The Top Ten Greatest Inventions’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘The Top Ten Greatest Inventors’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Trademarks’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Types of Grants Available’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Understanding Copyrights as a Budding Inventor’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Understanding Patent Rules as a Budding Inventor’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘Value of a Product Evaluation’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)
– Lockton, D. ‘When Should You Patent?’. Inventor Resource, 2007 (link)

42 thoughts on “Dr Dan Lockton”

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  2. Great info on your site Dan, I’ll have to dig a bit deeper when I have the time. Have you considered doing CRO (Conversion Rate Optimization) consulting in the internet marketing sector?

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