Where a source is a personal correspondence or discussion, and thus has not previously been published, this is clearly indicated in the list of references. The views of individuals should be taken as personal opinion and are not intended to reflect the official views of the companies or institutions with which they are associated.

Home | Acknowledgements

1. WINNER, L. ‘Do artifacts have politics?’ in The Whale and The Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1986

2. ‘Baron Haussmann’ entry on Wikipedia, 10. iv. 2005,

3. JACOBS, J. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, 1965, pp. 99-100

4. EWING, R. Traffic Calming: State of the Practice, Institute of Transportation Engineers,Washington D.C., 1999

5. HOWELL, O. ‘The Poetics of Security: Skateboarding, Urban Design, and the New Public Space,’ Urban Action 2001/San Francisco State University Urban Studies Program, 2001,

6.‘Recycled Plastic Georgetown Bench,’ Belson Outdoors, Inc., acc. May 2005,

7. BENTHAM, J. ‘Panopticon; or The Inspection-House, &c.’ in The Panopticon Writings (ed. Miran Bozovic), Verso, London, 1995

8. FOUCAULT, M. Discipline and Punish: Birth of the Prison (tr. Alan Sheridan), Peregrine Books, Harmondsworth, 1979

9. ‘What is Traksure?’ AXA Insurance Limited (Ireland), acc. May 2005,

10. ‘Pay As You Driveâ„¢ insurance,’ Norwich Union, acc. May 2005,

11. BOVENS, A. ‘Closed Architectures for Content Distribution,’ Japan Media Review, 12. ii. 2005,

12. von LOHMANN, ‘Fair Use and Digital Rights Management,’ Electronic Frontier Foundation, 16. iv. 2002,

13. MAGID, L. ‘It Pays To Read License Agreements,’ PC Pitstop, acc. May 2005,

14. STALLMAN, R.M. ‘The Right to Read,’ Communications of the ACM, Vol. 40, No. 2, February 1997,

15. ANDERSON, R. ”Trusted Computing’ Frequently Asked Questions,’ Version 1.1, August 2003,

16. TOURETZKY, D. ‘Gallery of Adobe Remedies,’ 8. iv. 2005,

17. ‘End the hassle of renting movies with the Flexplay DVD,’ Flexplay, acc. May 2005,

18. ‘Digital Rights Management’ entry on Wikipedia, 30. iv. 2005,

19. MEDLAR, A. ‘Adobe forbids reading aloud,’ 13. xii. 2000,

20. SCHNEIDER, N. ‘The Sound of iPod,’ 11. i. 2005,

21. ‘Endangered Gizmos,’ Electronic Frontier Foundation, acc. May 2005,

22. DOCTOROW, C. ‘Understanding the Broadcast Flag,’ for G4 TV ‘Screen Savers,’ 15. viii. 2002,…/Broadcast_Flag.html

23. DOCTOROW, C. ‘Hollywood wants to plug the ‘Analog Hole” on ‘Consensus at Lawyerpoint,’ 23. v. 2002,

24. GREENE, T. ‘Court blasts FCC on broadcast flag,’ The Register, 7. v. 2005,…/shot_down

25. ‘Digital Millennium Copyright Act’ entry onWikipedia, 22. iv. 2005,

26. LESSIG, L. Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity, Penguin Books, New York, 2004, pp. 93-97

27. ibid, pp. 96-7

28. ibid, pp. 99-100

29. LESSIG, L. Code, and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Basic Books, New York, 1999

30. FOGG, B.J. Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 2003

31. ‘Fantastic car,’ a review of Audi A2 1.4 TDI by user ‘Hils303’ on Ciao!, 24. i. 2004,

32. NORMAN, D. The Design of Everyday Things, Basic Books, New York, 2002, pp.132-140

33. Correspondence between Steve Portigal and the author, April/May 2005

34. BERRIDGE, D. ‘Safety First: The SSV/SRV cars,’ on the Unofficial Austin-Rover Web Resource, 17. viii. 2004,

35. IACOCCA, L. Iacocca, An Autobiography, Bantam Books, London, 1986, pp. 309-316

36. FOGG, B.J., supra, pp. 106-107

37. SHINGO, S. Study of the Toyota Production System: From an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint (tr. Andrew P. Dillon), Productivity Press, New York, 1989

38. GROUT, J. ‘John Grout’s Poka-Yoke Page,’ acc. May 2005,

39. BOOTHROYD, G., DEWHURST, P. and KNIGHT,W.A. Product Design for Manufacture and Assembly, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001

40. BECH, K.S. ‘PillAid’ in Good Thinking : Brunel Design 04 Directory (eds. D. Lockton, C.Weightman, P. Turnock and J.E. Hanson), Brunel University, Runnymede, 2004

41. WARD, J. et al, Design for Patient Safety, Department of Health, London, 2003,

42. SWAN, G. ‘Square-Eyes’ in Brunel Design 2005 (eds. P. Turnock, A. Bartlett, et al), Brunel University, Uxbridge, 2005

43. AMBLER, T. ‘The ultimate incentive to get kids exercising?’ on Principles of Timology, 18. v. 2005,

44. ‘Shoe kick-starts active lifestyle,’ BBC News, 18. v. 2005,

45. PHILLIPS, V. ‘Washing machine fingers lazy male,’ BBC News, 1. v. 2005,

46. SILVA, R. ‘Region Codes-DVD’s Dirty Secret,’ Home Theater section, 2. viii. 2004,…/codesa.htm

47. Discussion between Bill Thompson and the author, May 2005

48. MILLER, E. ‘Why Use DRM If It Doesn’tWork?’ on Copyfight, 7. v. 2004,

49. LESSIG, L. Free Culture, supra, pp. 97-8

50. LESSIG, L. Code, and Other Laws of Cyberspace, supra, pp. 85-99

51. LESSIG, L. The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World, Random House, New York, 2001

52. Stanford Persuasive Technology Laboratory,

53. FOGG, B.J., supra, pp. 205-7

54. ibid, p. 194

55. ibid, pp. 228-9

56. ibid, p. 250

57. von HIPPEL, E. The Sources of Innovation, Oxford University Press, New York, 1988

58. von HIPPEL, E. Democratizing Innovation, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2005

59. ibid, p. 99

60. ODLYZKO, A. ‘The Evolution of Price Discrimination in Transportation and its Implications for the Internet,’ Review of Network Economics, September 2004,…/odlyzko_RNE_sept_2004.pdf

61. McKNIGHT, L., LEHR,W.H. and HOWISON, J. Coordinating User and Device Behaviour inWireless Grids,

62. GILLETT, S.E., LEHR,W.H., WROCLAWSKI, J.T. and CLARK, D.D., ‘Do Appliances Threaten Internet Innovation?,’ IEEE Communications, October 2001,…/956112

63. FEYNMAN, R.P. ‘Los Alamos From Below,’ in The Pleasure of Finding Things Out (ed. Jeffrey Robbins), Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Mass., 1999 (also )

64. LEYDEN, J. ‘DVD Jon is free-official,’ The Register, 7. i. 2003,…/dvd_jon_is_free_official

65. BALCHIN, N. and DAVY, P. ‘A van that went up in the world,’ Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge, 1996,

66. RAYMOND, E.S. ‘How to become a hacker,’ The Cathedral and the Bazaar, O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol, Cal., 1999 (also at )

67. FEYNMAN, R.P. ‘The Pleasure of Finding Things Out,’ in The Pleasure of Finding Things Out, supra.

68. HEINLEIN, R. Stranger in a Strange Land, Putnam Publishing, New York, 1961

69. FELTEN, E.W., Freedom to Tinker blog,

70. NEISTAT, C.O. and NEISTAT, V., ‘iPod’s Dirty Secret’ (movie), 2003,

71. ‘General information about the Electronic Frontier Foundation,’ Electronic Frontier Foundation, acc. May 2005,

72. Chilling Effects Clearinghouse,

73. LESSIG, L. Code, and Other Laws of Cyberspace, supra, p. 99

74. VARIAN, H.R. ‘New chips can keep a tight rein on consumers, even after they buy a product,’ New York Times, 4. vii. 2002,…/2002-07-04.html

75. DOUGHERTY, D. (ed.) Make: Technology on Your Time, Vol. 01, O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol, Cal., February 2005

76. ROTH, D. ‘The Amazing Rise of the Do-It-Yourself Economy,’ Fortune, May 2005,…/1,00.html

77. STALLMAN, R.M. ‘My Lisp Experiences and the Development of GNU Emacs,’ International Lisp Conference, 28. x. 2002,

78. GRAHAM, P. ‘Good Bad Attitude’ in Hackers & Painters, O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol, Cal., 2004

79. ‘Resistentialism’ entry on Wikipedia, 11. ii. 2005,

80. ROSEN, H. ‘Steve Jobs, Let My Music Go,’ Huffington Post blog, 9. v. 2005,…/let-.html

81. ‘PC Pro online music exposé: UK public pays too much for too little,’ PC Pro, 22. iv. 2005,…/too-little.html

82. ‘Online music lovers ‘frustrated’,’ BBC News, 25. iv. 2005,

83. GRAHAM, P. ‘What You Can’t Say’ in Hackers & Painters, supra.

84. Correspondence between Andreas Bovens and the author, April 2005

85. GRAVES, L. ‘Has TiVo Forsaken Us?,’ Wired, November 2004,

86. ‘What is MythTV?’ on MythTV website, 17. v. 2005,

87. CARSTEN, O. and FOWKES, M. External Vehicle Speed Control, Phase I Results, Executive Summary, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, July 1998,…/dft_roads_506878.pdf

88. CARSTEN, O. and TATE, F. External Vehicle Speed Control, Final Report: Integration, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, July 2000,…/dft_roads_506877.pdf

89. ‘External vehicle speed control project-introduction,’ Department for Transport website, acc. May 2005,…/dft_roads_506876.hcsp

90. LIVERSIDGE, N.F. ‘The Mulhouse Declaration,’ Motorcycle Action Group, 2001,

91. ‘Get involved in RNIB campaigns,’ Royal National Institute for the Blind, 4. iii. 2005,…/public_rnib003590.hcsp

92. Thank you to Peter Moar for this observation.

93. Discussion between Chris Weightmanand the author, May 2005

94. Knee Defender website,

95. ‘Backflash’ in ‘Laser & Radar Review,’ Evo, January 1999 (also at )

96. Burgopak website,

97. Discussion between Hamish Thain and the author, May 2005

98. SMITH, A. ‘Canon loses printer recycling case,’ The Register, 9. xii. 2004,…/canon_loses_printer_case

99. ‘Lexmark v. Static Control Case Archive,’ Electronic Frontier Foundation, acc. May 2005,

100. LEYDEN, J. ‘Lexmark suffers setback in DMCA case,’ The Register, 28. x. 2004,

101. ‘US woman sues over ink cartridges,’ BBC News, 24. ii. 2005,

102. SHERRIFF, L. ‘Things to do online when you’re dead,’ The Register, 8. ii. 2005, quoting correspondent ‘Peter,’

103. CHALKLEY, A., HARRISON, D. and BILLETT, E. A Review of Product Lifetime Optimization as an Environmental Tool, International Conference on Engineering Design ICED01, 2001

104. Correspondence between David Harrison and the author, April 2005

105. ‘Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE),’ Official Journal of the European Union, 13. ii. 2003,…/240038.pdf

106. ADAMS, N. ‘Why is GM Crushing Their EV-1s?’ Electrifying Times, 2. xii. 2001,

107. ‘Photoshop BS,’ Metafilter, 8. i. 2004,

108. ‘Photoshop CS Adds Banknote Image Detection, Blocking?’ Slashdot, 8. i. 2004,…/185

109. BECKER, D. ‘HP focuses on paparazzi-proof cameras,’ CNET, 25. i. 2005,…/5550415.html

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